Saturday, July 03, 2021

Starch component: Amylose

Starch is one of the biggest components of carbohydrates in food and other biological materials. The most important sources for humans are diverse cereals, rhizomes, roots and tubers. It can exist in two forms, amylose and amylopectin, both of which are polymers of D-glucose.

The amylose molecule is a linear, unbranched structure in which the glucose residues are attached solely through α-1,4 glycosidic bonds.

The amylose, in an aliquot of the supernatant, is enzymically hydrolyzed to D-glucose, which is analyzed using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent.

Amylose chains are helical with hydrophobic, lipophilic interiors capable of forming complexes with linear hydrophobic portions of molecules that can fit within the lumen of the helix.

The molecular weight range of amylose (i.e., 80000–1000000) is quite broad and varies in between plant species, varieties and maturity of the starch under study. Amylose can be considered as a linear polymer, but nevertheless contains a very low number of α-1,6 branching points (less than 1.0%).

It was reported that starchy foods with high amylose levels are associated with lower blood glucose levels and slower emptying of the human gastrointestinal tract compared to those with low levels of this macromolecule.
Starch component: Amylose

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