Monday, July 25, 2022

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Adenosine 5′-triphosphate, abbreviated ATP is a coenzyme that works with enzymes such as ATP triphosphatase to transfer energy to cells by releasing its phosphate groups. It is produced by the catabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

ATP was discovered in 1929 by two independent sets of researchers: Karl Lohmann and also Cyrus Fiske/Yellapragada Subbarow. Later in the year 1948, Scottish biochemist Alexander Todd was the first person to synthesized the ATP molecule.

The molecule consists of three components: an adenine bicyclic system, a furanose ring, and a triphosphate chain. These molecules provide energy for various biochemical processes in the body.

It is soluble in water and has a high energy content, which is primarily due to the presence of two phosphoanhydride bonds connected to the three phosphate groups (alpha, beta and gamma). The bonds between the beta and gamma phosphates are particularly high in energy. When these bonds break, they release enough energy to trigger a range of cellular responses and mechanisms.

ATP synthesized in mitochondria is the primary energy source for important biological functions, such as muscle contraction, and protein synthesis. In addition to metabolic functions, ATP is involved in signal transduction. It is believed to be the neurotransmitter responsible for the sensation of taste.

ATP synthesis utilizes energy obtained from multiple catabolic mechanisms, including cellular respiration, beta-oxidation, and ketosis. Whenever a cell needs energy, it breaks the beta-gamma phosphate bond to create adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate molecule. The key to energy production lies ​with the phosphate groups. Breaking the phosphate bond is an exothermic reaction.

A cell stores excess energy by combining ADP and phosphate to make ATP. Cells get energy in the form of ATP through a process called respiration, a series of chemical reactions oxidizing six-carbon glucose to form carbon dioxide.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

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