Wednesday, January 10, 2024

Manganese Absorption and Metabolism

Manganese, a vital trace mineral essential for all living organisms, plays a pivotal role in the consistent development, growth, and functioning of the human body. It serves as a cofactor for a diverse range of enzymes, including manganese superoxide dismutase, arginase, and pyruvate carboxylase. Brown rice, rice bran, wheat bran, wheat germ, molasses, beans, nuts, and tea are notable for being excellent sources of whole foods rich in manganese.

The absorption of manganese predominantly takes place in the small intestine through an active transport system, with the possibility of diffusion at elevated intake levels. Regulatory mechanisms ensure that an uptick in dietary manganese intake leads to a reduction in gastrointestinal absorption. Following absorption, some manganese remains unbound, while the majority binds to transferrin, albumin, and plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin. Although the process of manganese uptake by the liver and other tissues is not fully understood, it is generally acknowledged as a mineral with absorption rates that are less than optimal.

Various elements, such as fiber, phosphorus, oxalates, and iron, can impede manganese absorption, and alkalinity may diminish manganese uptake. The liver expedites the elimination of manganese from the bloodstream through biliary excretion, with less than 5 percent of ingested manganese typically being absorbed by adults.

Numerous enzymes activated by manganese play pivotal roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol.
Manganese Absorption and Metabolism

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