Friday, October 29, 2021

High Density Lipoprotein

Cholesterol is found in all cells. It is needed for many body functions. Two types of cholesterol are HDL and LDL. HDL is a “good” cholesterol that removes LDL (bad) cholesterol from the bloodstream.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is one of the five major fat and protein particles (lipoproteins) whose role it is to enable blood fats (lipids), such as cholesterol and triglycerides, to be transported within the water-based bloodstream.

HDL is a class of heterogeneous lipoproteins containing approximately equal amounts of lipid and protein. HDL particles are characterized by high density (more 1.063 g/mL) and small size (Stoke’s diameter 5 to 17 nm).

The various HDL subclasses vary in quantitative and qualitative content of lipids, apolipoproteins, enzymes, and lipid transfer proteins, resulting in differences in shape, density, size, charge, and antigenicity.

In a normal healthy individual, HDL carries about a quarter of the total amount of cholesterol in the blood, whereas most of the remainder is carried in LDL (low density lipoprotein) “bad cholesterol” particles.

HDL is important for the synthesis of steroid hormones but it is better known for its protective role against cardiovascular disease. A low HDL is thought to speed up the rate at which arteries fur up.

HDL (good) cholesterol protects against heart disease, so for HDL, higher numbers are better. A level less than 40 mg/dL is low and is considered a major risk factor because it increases the risk for developing heart disease. HDL levels of 60 mg/dL or more help to lower the risk for heart disease.

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels: Diet, Weight, Physical Activity. Low HDL among others due to: Insulin resistance, Familial Combined Hyperlipidaemia (FCH), Tangier disease, Medicines including beta blockers, thiazide diuretics, androgens, progestogens and anabolic steroids.
High Density Lipoprotein 

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