Monday, August 26, 2019

Minerals are essential constituents for enzymes

Enzymes are well-known as highly effective and efficient catalysts of a wide variety of processes characterized by high selectivity and activity. Additionally, enzymes may reduce the number of reaction steps and quantities of hazardous solvents needed and thus make a process more inexpensive and environmentally friendly. Many mineral elements are essential constituents of enzymes regulate a variety of physiologic processes.

Sulfur is used in building amino acids, proteins, vitamins, enzymes and chlorophyll. It gives flavor to many crops. Magnesium is at the core of chlorophyll and necessary for the function of enzymes, and to produce carbohydrates, sugars and fats.

Calcium activates enzymes, influences water movement, critical for cell communication. Glutathione peroxidase contains selenium that converts hydrogen peroxide to water. Iron also serves as a cofactor to enzymes in oxidation/reduction reactions (i.e., accepts or donates electrons). These reactions are vital to cells’ energy metabolism.

Iron is necessary for Catalase (cytosol), an enzyme (primarily in liver) that converts hydrogen peroxide to water. Manganese involved in enzyme activity for photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen metabolism.

Zinc is a component in enzymes and a cofactor in plant growth hormones, facilitates carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and stem growth. Zinc is a catalyst for about 100 enzymes.

Many enzymes and the B-vitamins become active only when a phosphate group is attached. Copper acts as a core to enzymes is used in systems that create carbohydrates and proteins.

Copper is a constituent of several enzymes. Copper-dependent enzymes transport iron and load it into hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen through the blood. Copper-dependent enzymes release energy from glucose; provide a natural defense against free radicals that damage the body.

Molybdenum used in enzymes that reduce nitrates to ammonia. Without it protein synthesis is blocked and growth ceases.

Several metalloenzymes which include glutathione peroxidase (Se), catalase (Fe), and superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, and Mn) are critical in protecting the internal cellular constituents from oxidative damage.

Only when these metals are delivered in the diet in sufficient amounts can the animal body synthesize these antioxidant enzymes. In contrast, deficiency of those elements causes oxidative stress and damage to biological molecules and membranes.
Minerals are essential constituents for enzymes

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