Tuesday, April 20, 2021

Calcium deficiency

Calcium is an essential nutrient accounting for about 2 percent of body weight, ranking fifth after oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. Nearly 99 percent of the body’s calcium is stored in the skeleton; the remainder is in the teeth and soft tissues.

During bone growth in infancy and childhood, endochondral ossification occurs at the growth plates resulting in lengthening of bone.

An inadequate supply of calcium restricts mineralization of the growing bone, leading to the clinical features of nutritional rickets.

Calcium enters the body through the gastro-intestinal tract, is absorbed mainly in the upper small intestine and is excreted via the bowel, kidneys and skin.

Conditions that reduce calcium absorption include high or excessive intakes of oxalates and phytates, found in foods such as spinach and unleavened whole wheat products.

Consumption of alcohol, coffee, sugar, or medications such as diuretics, tetracycline, aluminum containing antacids, or stress can reduce absorption of calcium.

Lack of exercise can reduce calcium absorption as well as cause an increase in calcium losses. These life habits can immobility lead to calcium deficiency.

Calcium deficiency can cause histologic and histomorphometric abnormalities that follow the usual pattern of a calcipenic mineralization defect.

The deficiency is a serious side effect because it can increase risk of bone disorders such as osteoporosis. It also could lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone resorption, and perhaps also peripheral bone loss, and osteomalacia in younger children.
Calcium deficiency

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