Sunday, July 12, 2020

Important nutrient in peanuts

Peanuts or “groundnuts” as they are known in some parts of the world are the edible seeds of a legume. The basic composition of peanuts per 100 g of nuts is as below:
 Water 1.55 g
 Carbohydrates 21.51 g
 Fiber 8.0 g
 Lipids (Fats) 49.66 g
 Proteins 23.68 g
Energy (Total Calories) 2448 kJ (585 kcal)

As peanuts are technically legumes they are more closely related to chickpeas and soybeans than to almonds, walnuts, or other tree nuts, and are more protein rich, and more nutritionally complete than tree nuts. Peanuts contain all the essential amino acids necessary for normal body growth and metabolism. All amino acids must be present evenly in the body to supplement normal and active growth. Among the 20 amino acids 11 are non-essential, and are continuously synthesized in the body through various reactions interlinking carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

The major carbohydrate present in peanuts is starch which is a homopolysaccharide made up of α-D glucose residues joined together by glycosidic bonds. Peanut research has demonstrated that peanut carbohydrate content is dependent upon cultivar, maturation, and geographic location.

Defatted peanut flour has been shown to contain approximately 38% total carbohydrates of which account for oligosaccharides 18%, starch, 12.5%, hemicellulose A 0.5%, hemicellulose B 3.5%, and cellulose (fiber) 4.5%.

Fatty acids that are present in peanuts belong to the category of lipids. In addition to carbohydrates, they also are considered as energy producing biomolecules. However, owing to their insoluble nature in water, they are not direct source of energy to the body, but act as an alternate fuel to the body. According to the American peanut council, peanut fat profile contains about 50 % monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), 33 % Paraformaldehyde (PFAs) and 14 % saturated fatty acids which is a heart friendly combination of fatty acids.

Peanuts are a vital source for introducing most of the water-soluble vitamins into the human body along with vitamin E which is fat soluble. An important fat-soluble vitamin in peanuts is vitamin E amounting to about 6.93 mg/100g. Vitamin E is known as α -tocopherol, and is an anti-oxidative vitamin.

Peanuts are a good dietary source of the macro minerals, which are the minerals needed daily in a quantity greater than 100 mg/day. Peanuts contain approximately 658 mg/ 100 g of the vital mineral potassium, which functions along with sodium to maintain the bodies’ electrolyte balance, and muscle and neurological function. 100 g of peanut can provide RDA levels of 127 % copper, 84 % manganese, 57 % iron, 54 % phosphorus, 42 % magnesium intake is associated with reduced inflammation and a decreased risk of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes.

Peanuts provide high energy levels for lesser consumptions level. They are also referred to as energy-dense. Peanuts contains about 50 % fat which at 9 cal per gram, contribute more calories than traditional foods used in humanitarian relief such as milk, corn, soybean, wheat and other grains.

Current research studies have demonstrated that dietary inclusion of peanuts and tree nuts has been linked to reduced heart disease, certain types of cancers, and improved weight management.

A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported that eating nuts daily can reduce death from heart disease by 29%, and even eating peanuts just twice a week can reduce risk by 24%.
Important nutrient in peanuts

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