Sunday, June 11, 2017

Histamine intoxication

Biogenic amines such as histamine, tyramine and putrescine play an important role in many critical functions in man and animals. However, consumption of food containing high amounts of these amines may have deleterious effect on human health.

Toxic compound such as histamine, originally classified as ptomaines, result from the microbial decomposition of proteins and in some instances, decarboxylation of amino acids.

Theoretically, some amino acids can give rise to a ptomaine derivative plus carbon dioxide. Histamine intoxication can be distinguished from food allergy on the basis of:
*Lack of previous history of allergic reaction to the food involved
*The high attack rate in outbreaks involving groups of individuals
*The detection of high levels of histamine in the food implicated

Histamine poisoning can results from the ingestion of foods containing high levels of histamine. Histamine is the most toxic amine detected in food.
This poisoning historically been referred to as scombroid poisoning because of the frequent association of the illness with the consumption of spoiled scombroid fish such as mackerel and tuna. The poisoning has also been reported in connection with non-fish fermented foods like cheese and sauerkraut.

Histamine intoxication is a chemical intoxication and self-limited illness. Even without treatment symptoms usually subside within a few hours. However of left untreated, symptoms can persist for as long as 24 to 48 hr.

Some of the symptoms of histamine intoxication, e.g. nausea, vomiting, gastric pain, and headache, may be seen with other foodborne diseases or intoxications. However, the cutaneous symptoms, e.g. rash, urticaria, facial flushing, can be used to distinguish histamine poisoning from other types of foodborne intoxication.

Histamine intoxication can be severe in person with a history of allergic disease, with preexisting cardiac or respiratory conditions, or in people being treated with certain drugs, such as isoniazid or monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
Histamine intoxication
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